Henry Fayol




“To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”


“The plan of action is, at one and the same time the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed the stages to go through and the methods to use.” 


“Control consists in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plans adopted the instructions issued and principles established. It has the object to point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify them and prevent reoccurrence.”


“the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Authority gives the management the power to enforce obedience. It is the power to give orders and make sure that these orders are obeyed.”

“Authority is the right to give order and the power to exact obedience”


“Everything that goes to increase the importance of the subordinate’s role is decentralisation.” 

There 14 Principles are below

Division of Work – Assign each employee a task that they can become proficient at. Productivity increases as employees become more skilled, assured and efficient. Today, experts still warn against multi-tasking .

Authority – Managers must possess the authority to give orders, and recognise that with authority comes responsibility. As well as rank, Fayol argues that a manager’s intelligence, experience and values should command respect.

Discipline – Everyone should follow the rules . To help, you can make agreements between the organization and employees clear for all to see.

Unity of Command – Fayol wrote that “an employee should receive orders from one supervisor only.” Otherwise, authority, discipline, order, and stability are threatened.

Unity of Direction – Teams with the same objective should be working under the direction of one manager, using one plan. That, Fayol wrote, “is the condition essential to unity of action, coordination of strength and focusing of effort.”

Collective Interest Over Individual Interest – Individuals should pursue team interests over personal ones – including managers.

Remuneration – Employee satisfaction depends on fair remuneration for everyone – financial and non-financial. Fayol said pay should be fair and reward “well-directed effort.”

Centralisation – Balancing centralized decision making (from the top) with letting employees make decisions. Or as Fayol wrote, “A place for everyone and everyone in his place.”

Scalar Chain – Employees should know where they stand in the organization’s hierarchy and who to speak to within a chain of command. Fayol suggested the now-familiar organization chart as a way for employees to see this structure clearly.

Order – Fayol wrote that, “The right man in the right place” forms an effective social order. He applied the same maxim to materials: right one, right place. Academics note that this principle pre-empted the Just in Time (JIT) strategy for efficient production.

Equity – Managers should be fair to all employees through a “combination of kindliness and justice.” Only then will the team “carry out its duties with… devotion and loyalty.”

Stability of Tenure of Personnel – Organization’s should minimize staff turnover and role changes to maximize efficiency. If people are secure and good at their jobs, they are happier and more productive.

Initiative – Employees should be encouraged to develop and carry out plans for improvement. As Fayol wrote, “At all levels of the organizational ladder, zeal and energy on the part of employees are augmented by initiative.”

Esprit de Corps – Organization’s should strive to promote team spirit, unity, and morale.

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