Accounting ExplanationFinance

7 Key Factors Affecting Financial Decisions

Finance is all about managing, creating, and analyzing money and investments. It includes borrowing, investing in stocks and bonds, and using other financial tools. To fund business operations and investments.

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Understanding the factors that influence finance choice is important for making the right financial decisions. So these factors can vary from an individual’s personal financial goals and risk tolerance to macroeconomic trends and government policies.

For businesses, the choice of finance can be influence by factors such as the size of the company, the industry, and its access to capital markets.

There are several factors that determine the best source of finance for a business, including the purpose of finance, cost, duration, the amount needed, business type and size, leverage, flexibility, and external factors.

7 Key Factors Affecting Financial Decisions (primary factors)

Purpose of Finance

The type of finance used should align with the intended use of the funds. So that different sources may be limit to specific uses.

Daily business operations

This includes short-term needs of less than a year, such as covering monthly expenses, paying bills, or managing cash flow. Options include overdrafts, trade credit, debt factoring, personal funds, or a short-term bank loan.

Medium-term projects

This includes needs of 1-5 years, such as updating equipment or launching an advertising campaign. Options include leasing, personal funds, or retained profits.

Long-term investments

This includes needs over 5 years, such as purchasing property or upgrading facilities. Options include mortgages, selling assets, venture capital, or retaining profits.

7 Key Factors Affecting Financial Decisions (Amount factors)

Amount of finance needed

The amount of finance needed can impact the type of finance to choose.

Working capital requirements

Working capital requirements refer to the amount of money needed for a company’s daily operations.

Capital expenditures

Capital expenditures refer to the amount of money needed for investments in fixed assets.

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Business organization type

The type of business organization can impact the type of finance to choose.

Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietorship is a type of business owned and operated by one person.


A partnership is a type of business owned and operated by two or more people.


A corporation is a type of business that is separate from its owners and operates as a separate legal entity.

Business size and status

The size and status of the business can impact the type of finance to choose.


A start-up is a new business that has not yet started operations.

Small or medium-sized enterprise

A small or medium-sized enterprise is a business that is smaller in size than a large corporation.

Large corporation

A large corporation is a business that is larger in size than a small or medium-sized enterprise.

Gearing level

The gearing level refers to the amount of debt a business has relative to its equity. The gearing level refers to the proportion of debt to equity used in financing the operations of a business. So a high debt-to-equity ratio means the business is highly leveraged and has a greater exposure to risk in the event of a downturn in the economy. But, a low debt-to-equity ratio means the business has less risk and is more reliant on equity financing.


Flexibility refers to the degree to which a financing source can be adapte to meet the changing needs of a business. For example, a bank loan may have a fixed repayment period and interest rate, while equity financing provides more flexibility to a business. As it does not have to be repaid and can be use to finance growth opportunities as they arise. So the choice of financing source can have a significant impact. On the ability of a business to respond to changing circumstances.

External Influences

External influences refer to the impact that external factors such as the economy, government regulations, and competition, can have on a business’s financial decisions. For example, if the


The economy is in a downtime, and businesses may face reduced demand for their products and services, which can impact their ability to access financing.


Government regulations can also impact financial decisions, for example, by limiting the amount of debt a business can take on or by imposing restrictions on the use of certain financing sources.


Competition can also play a role, as businesses may seek to gain a competitive advantage by using different financing sources or leveraging their balance sheet. Understanding the external influences that impact financial decisions is essential for businesses to make informed decisions about their financing choices.

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