What is Accounting Equation and How Transactions Affects Accounting Equation?

Every accounting transaction affects the fundamental accounting equation, which is Assets = Liabilities + Equity. Each transaction changes the expressions forming the equation in such a way that the accounting equation is satisfied after every such alteration, which means that for every debit there must be an equal credit.

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Accounting Equation: How Transactions Affects Accounting Equation? definepedia

The accounting equation is a fundamental accounting principle and a key component of the balance sheet. It shows the interdependency of assets, liabilities, and equity. The formula says that a company’s total assets equal the sum of its liabilities and shareholders’ equity.

Equations are useful because they help us understand our surroundings and build new technology. They are also useful for clarifying results and transforming one side of an equation in an unplanned manner. Equations are use frequently in mathematics. So it is important to understand and master them.

The equation itself is quite simple: Assets = Liabilities + Equity. So this means that a company’s total assets are equal to the sum of its liabilities and equity. To maintain the balance, a company’s equity must be Rs 40,000 if its assets are Rs 100,000 and its liabilities are Rs 60,000.

Component of the Accounting Equation

Accounting Equation:  Assets = Liabilities + Equity

Let’s break down each component of the accounting equation.


These are the tangible/intangible resources own and controlled by a company that can be used to develop future economic benefits. Examples of assets include cash, property, inventory, equipment, patents, and trademarks. Basically, anything that a company owns. It has value is considered an asset.


Other hand, represent a company’s debts to repay. This can include loans, accounts payable, taxes owed, and salaries payable. Liabilities are generally, classified as either short-term (payable within one year) or long-term (payable over a longer period).

Owner Equity

It refers to the portion of a company’s value that is own by shareholders. This can include common stock, retained earnings, and any other reserves or funds set aside for future use. Equity represents a company’s net worth, which is the residual value of assets after liabilities have been subtracted.

It’s important to note that every transaction in double-entry bookkeeping affects at least two accounts. For example, if a company purchases a new piece of equipment for Rs 10,000, this transaction would affect both the asset and liability accounts. 

The asset account would increase by Rs 10,000, while the liability account (usually accounts payable) would increase by the same amount.

Accounting equation serves as a powerful way for understanding the financial health of a company. By keeping track its assets, liabilities, and equity, a company can make informed/right decisions about how to distributions of resources, raise capital, and grow its business.

Key Points

  • The accounting equation shows the connection between assets, liabilities, and equity
  • Transactions affect at least two accounts and the type of accounts involved determines the impact on the accounting equation
  • The equation is always balanced after every transaction and no properly recorded transaction will disrupt this balance
  • Examples are provided to illustrate how transactions impact the accounting equation 
  • The accounting equation is a fundamental principle in accounting and is crucial for accurate financial reporting.

Limitations of Accounting Equations

  • The accounting equation has limitations in providing a complete picture of a company’s financial health.
  • Accounting equation includes not providing an analysis of how well the business is operating.
  • The accounting equation does not completely prevent accounting errors.
  • The accounting equation does not capture intangible assets.
  • The accounting equation does not reflect the true value of assets or liabilities.
  • Other financial ratios and measures are required to provide a more complete picture of a company’s financial health. That’s why it has become lengthy also sometimes.

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