What is Coordination in Management? Definition, Principles, Techniques, Roles, Process and Importance of Coordination

Coordination is a fundamental aspect of effective management which plays a important role in achieve organizational goals/objectives. It act as like glue that binds various functions, departments, and individuals within an organization.

To ensuring that they work together in very peace towards a common goal.

Coordination in management refers to the unification, integration, and synchronization of group members’ efforts to achieve unity of action in pursuing common goals.


Coordination can be defined as the art of orchestrating diverse activities within an organization to ensure they align seamlessly, leading to efficient and effective operations.

It involves combining and, allowing different parts of an organization to function effectively and efficiently.

In the words of McFarland “Coordination is the process whereby an executive develops an orderly pattern of group efforts among his subordinates and secures the unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose.”

In the words of Charles Worth, “Coordination is the integration of several parts into an orderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding”.

According to Mooney and Reelay, “Coordination is orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals”.

Brech said that ‘Coordination is balancing and keeping together the team by ensuring suitable allocation of tasks to the various members and seeing that the tasks are performed with the harmony among the members themselves.‘



Coordination operates on a set of principles that guide its implementation:

  • Direct Personal Contact: Effective coordination often involves face-to-face communication to convey ideas, resolve misunderstandings, and foster collaboration.
  • Early Beginning: Coordination is most successful when initiated at the early stages of planning and policy development, preventing conflicts down the line.
  • Reciprocity: Recognizing the interdependence of factors in a given situation encourages mutual cooperation, making coordination smoother.
  • Continuity: Coordination is an ongoing process rather than a one-time activity, requiring constant effort to maintain harmony.


Successful coordination relies on a range of techniques, including:

  • Well-Defined Goals: Clear and concise organizational goals help individuals understand their roles and contributions, fostering unity of purpose.
  • Simplified Organizational Structure: Clarity in authority and responsibility, along with well-defined organizational charts, minimizes confusion and overlaps.
  • Effective Communication: Regular and open communication is crucial for understanding roles, resolving conflicts, and maintaining harmony among employees.
  • Effective Leadership: Strong leadership guides coordination efforts at both planning and execution stages, ensuring alignment with organizational objectives.
  • Effective Supervision: Supervisors play a vital role in coordinating work at the execution level, aligning it with overall organizational goals.
  • Cooperation: Encouraging cooperation among employees through formal and informal communication and decision-making committees facilitates coordination.

Role of Coordination in Various Management Functions:

  • Planning: Coordination is facilitated through mutual discussion and the integration of various plans.
  • Organizing: It is considered the essence of organizing, with uppermost consideration for coordination when grouping and assigning activities to subordinates.
  • Staffing: Ensuring the right personnel with the right skills are in the right positions is essential for coordination.
  • Directing: Harmony between superiors and subordinates is vital for effective coordination.
  • Controlling: Coordination ensures alignment between actual performance and standard performance to achieve organizational goals.

Differences between Coordination and Cooperation:

  • Scope: Coordination is broader than cooperation and includes it because it harmonizes group efforts.
  • Process: Coordination is performed by top management, while cooperation can be initiated by individuals at any level.
  • Requirements: Coordination is required by employees and departments at work, while cooperation depends on the willingness of people working together.
  • Relationship: Coordination establishes both formal and informal relationships, while cooperation establishes informal relationships.
  • Freedom: Coordination is planned and essential, while cooperation is not necessarily planned and depends on individuals’ will.


The coordination process involves a series of steps:

  • Clearly Defined and Understood Objectives: All individuals and departments must understand the organization’s objectives to work in harmony.
  • Proper Division of Work: Assigning tasks appropriately ensures that each contributes to the organization’s goals.
  • Good Organizational Structure: Departments should be structured for smooth workflow and collaboration.
  • Clear Lines of Authority: Delegating authority with clarity helps in accountability and minimizes conflicts.
  • Regular and Timely Communication: Effective communication grow the understanding and helps in resolving issues promptly.
  • Sound Leadership: Leadership creates a conducive work environment, allocates work, and persuades employees to share a common outlook.

Importance of Coordination

  • Better Personnel Relations: It promotes cordial human relations, resolves disputes, and enhances employee morale and job satisfaction.
  • Unity of Direction: Coordination ensures that everyone works towards a common goal, preventing conflicting objectives and organizational chaos.
  • Essential for Management: As organizations grow in size and complexity, coordination becomes essential to synchronize activities and achieve business goals.
  • Efficiency and Economy: Coordination reduces delays, avoids duplication, and optimizes resource utilization, resulting in cost savings and efficiency.
  • Helpful in Developing and Retaining Personnel: By promoting teamwork and job satisfaction, coordination aids in personnel development and retention.
  • Improves Goodwill of Organization: It helps organizations deliver high-quality products and services, enhancing their reputation and goodwill.

Objectives of Coordination

The objectives of coordination include:

  • Encourages Team Spirit: By minimizing conflicts and fostering cooperation, coordination encourages employees to work as a cohesive team.
  • Provides Proper Direction: It ensures that all departments and individuals are aligned with organizational objectives, providing clarity of direction.
  • Facilitates Motivation: Effective coordination supports employee initiatives and offers incentives, motivating them to perform at their best.
  • Maximizes Resource Utilization: Coordination optimizes resource allocation, preventing waste and enhancing efficiency.
  • Speeds Up Goal Achievement: By eliminating bottlenecks and conflicts, coordination accelerates the achievement of organizational goals.
  • Enhances Organizational Relations: It improves relations between management levels and among employees, fostering a harmonious work environment.
  • Grow the Efficiency: Through better resource utilization and streamlined processes, coordination enhances overall organizational efficiency.
  • Improves Organizational Goodwill: Coordinated efforts lead to high-quality outcomes, contributing to a positive organizational reputation.

Problems of Coordination

  • Natural Progress: Inherent organizational complexities can hinder coordination efforts.
  • Lack of Administrative Talent: Inadequate coordination skills among administrators can impede effective coordination.
  • Lack of Coordination Techniques: In the absence of coordination techniques, organizational processes may become very uncordinative.
  • Conflicting Ideas/Objectives: Differences in individual and departmental goals can create coordination problems.
  • Misunderstandings: Misunderstandings between employees and management can disrupt coordination efforts.

My Perspective 

In conclusion, coordination is a vital aspect of successful management that brings unity and efficiency to organizational activities. By understanding its principles, techniques, process, importance, and objectives, organizations can navigate challenges and foster a harmonious work environment conducive to achieving their goals.

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