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Meaning of Diversification Strategy and its Strategies (Explained)

Diversification is a strategy used in investing where you spread your money across different types of investments, rather than putting all your eggs in one basket. This can help to reduce the risk of losing money if one of your investments doesn’t perform well. It’s like to how a business owner might expand their product line to different areas. To reduce the risk of relying on one product or service.



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By diversifying your investments, you can spread the risk and increase the chances of achieving your investment goals. It’s important to remember that diversification doesn’t guarantee a profit or protect against loss. But it can help to manage risk and increase stability in your portfolio.







Meaning of Diversification

Diversification is a smart way to manage your investments by spreading them across different types of assets and investments. This means investing in a variety of different portfolios with different levels of risk and return. By diversifying your investments, you can reduce the risk of losing all your money if one investment doesn’t perform well.

When you diversify your portfolio, you cut unsystematic risk – which is the risk related to a specific investment or company. By spreading your investments across different options. You can reduce the risk from any specific investment.






Diversification also allows you to invest beyond your home country. By investing in different geographic regions. This can help you take advantage of different markets and economies. and it can enhance your portfolio.

In short, diversification is a way of spreading your investments across different types of assets, sectors, and geographic regions. To cut the impact of any one investment on your portfolio. And to reduce the risk of losing all your money if one investment doesn’t perform well.


Definition


Ansoff defined “Diversification as a business strategy which allows penetrating into new markets using newly invented products with the goal to expand a company to a level where it fosters future growth and more profit.”



Types of Diversification strategies


There are several types of diversification strategies that investors can use, including:


Asset class diversification

This strategy involves investing in different asset classes. Such as stocks, bonds, real estate, and commodities. For example, an investor might invest in a mix of stocks, bonds, and real estate. To spread their risk across different asset classes.



Sector diversification

This strategy involves investing in different sectors of the economy. Such as technology, healthcare, consumer goods, and energy. For example, an investor might invest in a mix of technology and healthcare companies. To spread their risk across different sectors.



Geographical diversification

This strategy involves investing in different geographic regions, such as the United States, Europe, and Asia. For example, an investor might invest in a mix of US-based and European companies. To spread their risk across different geographic regions.




Style diversification

This strategy involves investing in different investment styles. Such as growth, value, and income. For example, an investor might invest in a mix of growth and value stocks, or in a mix of bonds with different credit ratings.




Alternative diversification

This strategy involves investing in alternative investments. Such as hedge funds, private equity, and real assets. For example, an investor might invest in a mix of hedge funds, and private equity. And real estate to spread their risk across different alternative investments.







What are the reasons for Diversification being a commonly recommended Investment approach?


Diversification is a recommended investment strategy for several reasons:

Risk management: Diversification helps to spread risk across different investments. So that if one investment performs, the other investments may still perform well. This can help to reduce the risk of an investment portfolio and increase the chances of achieving investment goals.


Unsystematic risk reduction: Diversification helps to cut unsystematic risk, which is the risk related to a specific investment or company. By spreading investments across different options. An investor can reduce the risk from any one specific investment.



Opportunity for higher returns: By diversifying investments across different asset classes, sectors, and geographic regions. An investor can increase the opportunity for higher returns. Different investments will perform in different market conditions. So diversifying investments can help to capture returns from different market conditions.


Protection against market downturns: Diversification can provide a buffer against market downturns. As different investments tend to be affected by market fluctuations. So it can help to mitigate the impact of a market downturn on an investment portfolio.




Portfolio balance: Diversification can help to balance an investment portfolio by investing in a mix of assets with different risk and return characteristics. So this can help to align an investment portfolio with an investor’s risk tolerance and investment goals.






Reduced volatility: Diversification can help to reduce the volatility of an investment portfolio by spreading investments across different assets and sectors. So this can help to smooth out the returns of an investment portfolio over time, which can be beneficial for long-term investors.

Flexibility: Diversification allows investors to adjust their portfolios based on their changing financial needs and goals. So by investing in different asset classes, sectors, and geographic regions, investors can adjust their portfolios to match their changing risk tolerance and investment goals. Additionally, it also allows for the ability to add or remove investments as market conditions change.







Advantages of Diversification Strategy

  • Risk reduction by spreading investments across different options
  • Enhanced returns by investing in both short and long-term options
  • Exploration of more investment opportunities
  • Stability and higher returns in related sectors
  • Ability to adjust to the business cycle





Disadvantages of Diversification Strategy

  • High Management costs
  • Difficulty in monitoring and analyzing all the different investments
  • May not guarantee higher returns
  • Diversification can lead to dilution of returns if not done perfectly
  • It may also lead to neglect of some underperforming investments in the portfolio.





Reference:


Le H. Literature Review on Diversification Strategy, Enterprise Core Competence and Enterprise Performance. ResearchGate. Published 2019. Accessed January 24, 2023. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330282795_Literature_Review_on_Diversification_Strategy_Enterprise_Core_Competence_and_Enterprise_Performance

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