Factors Affecting Price Decisions ( Internal & External )

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Price is a crucial aspect of any business, as it serves as the basis for customers purchasing decisions. The value exchanged for the benefits of a product or service is called the price.

However, determining the price is not as simple as it may appear. There are various internal and external factors that influence pricing decisions. And making it a sensitive issue in consumer behaviour.

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Types of Pricing

Pricing can take various forms, such as interest, rent, fee, tool, premium, fare, etc. The negotiation between customers and sellers determines the price of a product or service. There are two main types of pricing strategies: fixed price and dynamic price.

Fixed Price: A single price is set for all customers in this strategy. This type of pricing is suitable for products or services that have a consistent demand and low competition.

Dynamic Price: In this type of pricing, different prices are set for different customers based on the situation/cases. This pricing strategy is more suitable for products or services that have unstable demand and high competition.

Internal Factors Affecting Price Decisions

Pricing decisions are influenced by various internal and external factors, making it a complex process. Let’s explore the two main factors affecting pricing decisions:

Internal Factors

Internal factors refer to the elements within the company that influence pricing decisions. These factors include the cost of production, marketing expenses, and profit margins. Companies must consider these factors to set a competitive price and ensure profitability.

External Factors

External factors refer to the elements outside the company that influence pricing decisions. These factors include competition, consumer behaviour, and market trends. Companies must keep a close eye on these factors to adjust their pricing strategy and remain competitive in the market.

Definition of Internal Factors

Internal factors are the issues that prevail within a business organization and upon which the organization has control. They refer to the factors related to the internal environment of the business and include elements such as the cost of offerings, demand, and target customers.

Internal Factors

Cost of Offerings

The cost of production refers to all expenses incurred in the manufacturing of a product, which generates revenue for the company. These expenses can include the cost of goods sold, variable costs, fixed costs, and overhead costs.

The cost of production directly affects the price at which a product is sold. If production expenses are high, the company may need to set a higher price to make a profit. Other hands, if production expenses are low, the company may choose to set a lower price to attract more customers and increase sales.

In order to make the right pricing decisions, it’s important to take into consideration not only the cost of production but also the price elasticity of demand for the product/service. The price elasticity of demand is the measure of how sensitive consumers are to changes in price. If consumers are very sensitive to price changes, the demand for a product will be more price elastic.

Therefore you need to make a balance between keeping production expenses low and setting a price that is in line with the demand for the product.

Profit margins

Profit margins play a critical role in specifying a company’s financial health. It is a ratio that compares a company’s net income to its sales, and it can have a significant impact on marketing and pricing decisions. It helps companies to understand their total financial performance and make right decisions about how to divide their resources and set prices.

Types of Profit Margins

Basically, there are three main types of profit margins, including:

Gross Profit Margin: This is the ratio of a company’s gross profit to its revenue. It measures the amount of money a company makes from its sales after deducting the cost of goods sold.

Operating Profit Margin: This is the ratio of a company’s operating profit to its revenue. It measures the amount of money a company makes after deducting all its operating expenses, such as salaries and overhead.

Net Profit Margin: This is the ratio of a company’s net profit to its revenue. It is consider the most important profit margin. Because it measures the amount of money a company makes after deducting all its expenses, including taxes and interest.

How Profit Margins Affect Pricing Decisions

A high-profit margin can allow a company to demand more for its products/services, while a low-profit margin may require the company to lower its prices.

For example, a company with a high net profit margin may have the financial flexibility to invest in marketing and product development. And also allowing it to charge premium prices for its offerings. Other hand, a company with a low net profit margin may need to focus on cost-cutting and lowering its prices to remain in the competition.

It is important to note that profit margins can vary greatly by industry and company size, and are also affect by various other factors. Such as competition, economic conditions, and market trends. Companies that understand their profit margins can better distribute their resources, and set prices.

Target Customers

According to Investopedia, a target market is a group of people that have been identifying as the most likely potential customers for a product because of their shared characteristics, such as age, income, and lifestyle.

Knowing your target market is crucial in determining the right price for your product/service. This is because different target markets have different purchasing power, which can influence the price they’re willing to pay. For example, a high-end luxury product aimed at wealthy individuals may be priced higher than a similar product aimed at the middle class.

The Impact of Target Markets on Pricing

One factor that can influence pricing is the target market’s purchasing power. If your target market has a high income and is willing to pay more for premium products, you can set a higher price for your product or service. On the other hand, if your target market has limited financial resources, you may need to lower your prices in order to remain competitive.

Another factor that can affect pricing is the target market’s perception of value. Different target markets may have different opinions on what constitutes a fair price for a product or service.

For example, a product objected to budget-conscious consumers may be priced lower than a similar product. Which aimed at high-end consumers, even though the products are of equal quality.

The Target market’s age and lifestyle can also play a role in pricing decisions. For example, products aimed at older consumers may be priced differently than products aimed at younger consumers. As older consumers may have more disposable income and be willing to pay more for premium products. Similarly, products aimed at active, health-conscious consumers may be priced differently than products aimed at more sedentary consumers.

External Factors Affecting Price Decisions


Demand refers to the amount of a commodity or service that consumers are willing and able to purchase at a specified price. The relationship between demand and supply is indirect, with an increase in supply starts to a decrease in prices and an increase in demand, while a decrease in supply results in higher prices and reduced demand.

The Law of Demand and Substitution Effect

The law of demand states that when the price of a good is lower, consumers will buy more of it. This is because consumers have a greater ability to pay for the good at a lower price. The substitution effect takes place when a consumer reacts to a rise in the price of one good by consuming less of that good and more of a substitute good.

Price Elasticity of Demand

Price elasticity of demand is a measure of how sensitive consumers are to changes in price. It is calculated by dividing the percentage change in quantity demanded by the percentage change in price. When consumers are highly sensitive to price changes, the demand for a product is considered to be price elastic.

Consumer Sensitivity and Its Impact on Price Decisions 

Consumer sensitivity to price changes can greatly affect price decisions in marketing. When demand is price elastic, consumers are more likely to respond to changes in price by adjusting the quantity of the product they buy. This means that marketers need to be mindful of how their pricing decisions will impact consumer behaviour and make adjustments as necessary to maintain demand for their products.

Market Trends Analysis

Market trends analysis is a process that companies used to stay ahead in their marketing strategy. By analyzing market trends, companies can identify opportunities and challenges. That can impact their success. For example, if a company notices a trend towards eco-friendly products. They can decide to focus their marketing efforts on promoting their eco-friendly products.

How Market Trends Affect Pricing Decisions

Market trends can have a powerful impact on pricing decisions. By analyzing market trends, companies can determine what their customers are willing. For example, if a company notices a trend towards luxury products, they may decide to increase the price of its offerings to reflect the higher sensed value. Other hands, if a company notices a trend towards budget-friendly products, they may decide to lower their prices to appeal to price-sensitive customers.

Market Trends and Competition

Market trends can also impact a company’s competition, which in turn can affect pricing decisions. For example, if a company notices that its competitors are focusing on eco-friendly products, they may decide to follow the case and promote its own eco-friendly. So this can help the company to remain competitive and maintain its market share.

Staying ahead of market trends is essential for businesses, as it enables them to remain competitive and make informed decisions about their marketing strategy.

So by continuously monitoring and analyzing market trends, companies can quickly adapt to changes in the market and make the necessary adjustments to their pricing and marketing strategies.

Consumer behaviour

Consumer behaviour plays a vital role in marketing. As it helps you to understand why and how consumers make their purchasing decisions. By knowing what motivates your target audience, you can develop marketing strategies. And that can resonate with them, leading to increased engagement and conversions.

One of the major benefits of understanding consumer behaviour. It is that it to allows you to fit your marketing efforts to meet the specific needs and preferences.

For example, if you know that your target market is highly price sensitive, you can adjust your pricing strategy accordingly, offering discounts and promotions to attract them to purchase.

Consumer decision-making is a complex process that involves a number of stages, from problem recognition to post-purchase. Understanding each stage of this process is necessary for making effective pricing decisions. As it allows you to predict the needs and wants of your target audience.

One of the key factors that influence consumer decision-making is the price. Consumers will usually make purchasing decisions based on the smelled value of a product/service. And its price plays an important role in determining this value. By understanding how consumers sense the value, you can make the right decisions about pricing that will help push sales and improve profitability.

How to Use Consumer Behavior to Push Successful Price Decisions

In order to make the most of consumer behaviour insights, it’s important to gather as much information as possible about your target audience. This can be done through market research, consumer surveys, and other data-gathering methods.

Once you have a good understanding of your target audience and their needs, you can use this information to develop pricing strategies that are in line with their preferences.

For example, if you know that your target market is highly price-sensitive, you may want to consider offering discounts or promotions to entice them to make a purchase.

Another way to use consumer behaviour insights to drive successful price decisions is to understand the role that emotions play in the buying process.

Emotional factors, such as brand loyalty, play a significant role in consumer decision-making and can impact the perceived value of a product or service. By tapping into these emotions and using them to your advantage, you can increase your chances of making a sale.

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