Methods of Training

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Management training is an essential part of human resource management. Training is a planned effort to enhance the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of employees to perform their jobs effectively. 

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Definitions of Training by Different Authors

The act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. (Elippo)
The process by which manpower is filled for the particular jobs it is to perform. (Dale Yoder)
The organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for definite purpose. (Beach)
Learning process whereby people learn skills, concepts, attitudes and knowledge to aid in the achievement of goals. (Mathis and Jackson)
The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. (Gary Dessler)
Programs that are more present day oriented, focus on individual’s current jobs, enhancing specific skills and abilities to immediately perform their job called training. (Decenzo & Robbins)
The teaching of operational or technical employees how to do the job for which they were hired. (Ricky W. Griffin)
training in organization training methods

On-the-Job Training

On-the-job training refers to training methods applied in the workplace during an employee’s working hours. It involves learning while working and typically includes the following methods:

Apprenticeship Programs

Trainees work under the guidance of experienced professionals to acquire higher-level skills for skilled jobs (e.g., electricians, plumbers).


A trainer or coach guides and instructs the trainee, setting goals, providing advice, and analyzing progress. The trainee works under a senior manager who takes responsibility for their training.

Internship Training

A collaboration between educational institutions and business firms, where candidates continue their studies while working in a factory or office to gain practical knowledge and skills.

Job Rotation

Trainees are shifted from one job or department to another, allowing them to gain a better understanding of the organization and its parts. This also helps employees interact with others, fostering cooperation among departments.
  • Directly applicable to the employee’s work
  • Immediate feedback and practical experience
  • Enhances employee’s understanding of the organization
  • May disrupt regular work
  • Limited scope for personal development
  • Potential for uneven training quality

Off-the-Job Training

Off-the-job training refers to training methods used away from the workplace, with a focus on long-term goals centered around personal growth and development 
It usually involves the following techniques:


Provide information and demonstrate skills not easily represented by other methods, often used in conjunction with conference discussions.

Workshops, training days, and webinars

Relevant to the apprenticeship, these help develop the apprentice as an employee.

Online learning

Completion of online learning through learning management systems or in-house systems.

Writing assessments, assignments, and completing projects or activities

Practical training or workplace training relevant to the apprenticeship.
Off-the-job training is a statutory requirement for English apprenticeships, with full-time apprentices required to spend a minimum of 6 hours per week on such training.
  • Structured learning environment
  • Broader range of skills and knowledge
  • Encourages personal growth and development
  • May not directly apply to the employee’s work
  • Takes employees away from their regular duties
  • Additional costs for resources and facilities
There are various methods of training that companies can use to develop their employees. In this article, we will explore different methods of training in management, including internal and external training methods.

Internal Training methods

Internal training methods are also called on-the-job training methods and are generally applied in the workplace while employees are working. They include:
Reading, television, and video instructions: This approach to training and development involves reading relevant management literature. It is essentially self-development, and the training department may offer a reading list of valuable books. 
Watching television programs and videotapes on various subjects in university or company classrooms can also be used to enhance learning.
Job rotation: This involves moving employees from one job to another to gain knowledge of different functions, operations, and departments. It helps employees gain a broader perspective of the organization, and they can apply this knowledge in their work.
Coaching and mentoring: This method involves assigning experienced employees to guide and train new or less experienced employees. The mentor provides support, advice, and feedback to the mentee, which helps the mentee develop their skills and knowledge.
Apprenticeship: This approach involves pairing an inexperienced employee with an experienced employee to learn specific skills or knowledge. The apprentice learns by observing and working with the experienced employee.
Simulations: This method uses computer-based or physical simulations to create situations that mimic real-life scenarios. It helps employees learn how to respond to different situations and make decisions.
On-the-job training: This approach involves learning while performing the job. The employee is trained in the actual work environment, and the training is tailored to the specific job requirements.
In-house development programs: These are training programs that are specifically designed and conducted by the organization to meet its needs. The training can be conducted by internal trainers or external consultants.
E-learning: This approach uses electronic media to deliver training, including online courses, webinars, and podcasts. It provides flexibility and convenience for employees to learn at their own pace and time.

External training methods

External training methods are also called off-the-job training methods, and they are conducted outside the workplace. They include:
Conferences and seminars: These events provide opportunities for employees to learn from experts in a specific field. They can also network with other professionals and share their experiences.
Workshops: These are interactive training sessions that allow employees to practice and apply specific skills. They are usually conducted by external trainers or consultants.
Coaching and mentoring: This approach can also be conducted by external coaches or mentors who have expertise in a specific area.
Higher education: This approach involves enrolling employees in degree or certificate programs to gain specialized knowledge and skills.
Job shadowing: This method involves following an experienced employee to learn their job. It helps the trainee get a feel for what an actual day or week will look like for that new employee.
Self-study: This approach involves employees conducting research to learn what they need to know for the job.
Role-playing: This method involves employees acting out different scenarios to learn how to respond to different situations. It helps employees develop their communication and problem-solving skills.
Case studies: This approach involves analyzing real-life business scenarios to learn how to apply theoretical concepts to practical situations.
When selecting the right training methods, there are many factors to consider. It’s important to identify the objectives of the training program, the audience, their learning needs and backgrounds, and what they need to learn. 
The available training resources and time restrictions are also essential factors to consider.
One of the most effective training methods for new employees is classroom-style training. However, it is crucial to approach it correctly, as many employees won’t respond well to being handed a book and expected to learn. 
It’s essential to interact and engage learners and make the knowledge stick by using real-world examples and drawing clear applications to the organization. 
Often, it helps to use software, which responds readily to the needs of various learners, can go at different paces, and adapts to a variety of training situations.
Software training is often one of the most effective training methods, especially when training employees for a team environment. It keeps all employees on the same page at all times, on all sorts of topics. 
It allows you to train a full team of employees while still respecting their different learning styles and allowing them to go at their own pace, within reason. 

Factors for Selecting Training Methods

Factors to Consider When Selecting Training Methods

Purpose of the Training Program

The first step is to identify the objectives of the training program. Depending on the training goals, certain training methods will deliver better results. 
For example, more traditional training methods like classroom-based training may be more effective for hands-on learning or training that involves team-building or open discussion. Online training methods are better if you’re looking to regularly train employees over time.


Training is most effective when learners understand the purpose of training and see how it can help them in their roles. It’s important to consider how many people you’ll be training and where they’re located. If you have a large team that’s located across multiple locations or working remotely, you’ll need to find a training method that supports a dispersed team.

Learning Needs and Backgrounds

One-size training doesn’t work in today’s modern workplace. You need to train and onboard new hires differently than continuously develop and create the learning needs.

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