What is Adhocracy? Definition, Characteristics, Examples, Pros and Cons of Adhocracy

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Adhocracy is a business management style that emphasizes self-organization and individual initiative to complete tasks. It’s different from bureaucracy, which uses a set of rules and hierarchy to achieve organizational goals. 

An adhocracy is a type of organizational culture or structure. Which is characterized by decentralized leadership, quick decision-making, and a focus on getting the job done.

In an adhocracy, there is less emphasis on hierarchy, formal procedures, and planning ahead. Instead, the organization operates in a more flexible and adaptable manner, allowing for rapid changes based on current needs. Adhocracy culture is often preferred by young organizations or projects that benefit from a more organic and innovative approach to decision-making.

Definition of Adhocracy 

Mintzberg saidd that “An organizational form characterized by dynamic specialization, a fluid and changing structure, and ad hoc task forces.”

Galbraith said that “A matrix form in which specialists from different functional areas are brought together temporarily to work on specific projects.”

Tushman & O’Reilly said that “An organizational form characterized by minimal hierarchy, organic structure, and a focus on flexibility and adaptability.”

Daft & Weick said that “A temporary organization formed to solve a specific problem, characterized by loose coupling and improvisation.”

Hatch & Cunliffe said that “A form of organization characterized by fluid boundaries, flexible roles, and a focus on experimentation and learning.”

Characteristics  of Adhocracy 

Adhocracy is characterized by: 

Flexibility: Adhocracy cultures are flexible, which means that procedures are not always followed exactly as written. Instead, those who are closest to the problem make the decisions based on what will best achieve the desired outcome.

Informality: This culture challenges traditional corporate structures by promoting a flexible and dynamic work environment. In an adhocracy culture, individuals are empowered to take risks, experiment with new ideas, and make decisions based on expertise and opportunity.

Lack of formal structure: In an adhocracy culture, hierarchical structures are flattened, allowing for increased collaboration and the free flow of ideas. Decision-making authority is decentralized, empowering employees at all levels to contribute their expertise and insights.

Decentralized leadership: In adhocracy cultures, leadership is often distributed among many individuals. There’s no fixed hierarchy, and decisions are made by those best positioned to solve the issue, rather than being dictated by a single leader or a group of leaders.

Organic decision-making: Decision-making in adhocracy cultures is organic and fluid, with procedures and rules being adapted as needed. Employees take the initiative to come up with new ideas and solutions to problems.

Communication and coordination: In adhocracy cultures, the lack of formal policies can make it challenging to enforce rules and regulations. This can result in frustration and even conflict among employees. However, effective communication and coordination mechanisms can help overcome these challenges and ensure smooth operations.

Adhocracy is especially important in fast-paced industries, like social media and tech companies. It allows organizations to adapt to changes and adjust their products or services to meet trends. 

Example of an Adhocracy

An example of an adhocracy is Wikipedia. Wikipedia, established in 2001, operates without a hierarchy or bureaucracy. It is run by the Wikimedia Foundation, which has only a few full-time paid staff members.

The site is open to everyone and is known for its commitment to free content. The decentralized nature of Wikipedia allows for flexibility, adaptability, and rapid decision-making, making it a prime example of an adhocracy in action.

Some more examples of companies with adhocracy cultures include: Amazon, Wikipedia, NASA, Google. 

The term “adhocracy” was popularized by Alvin Toffler in the 1970s. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Adhocracy 

Advantages of Adhocracy CultureDisadvantages of Adhocracy Culture
Quick Decision-MakingCommunication Challenges
FlexibilityLack of Processes and Procedures
Job Variety and ControlInterpersonal Friction
Freedom and CreativityLimited Suitability for Large Corporations
Informal Work Environment


Mathur, D. (2021, November 22). Adhocracy culture: Meaning, examples, pros and cons. Harappa. https://harappa.education/harappa-diaries/adhocracy-culture/ 

Boatman, A. (2022, April 13). Adhocracy Culture: A Full Guide for HR Professionals. AIHR. https://www.aihr.com/blog/adhocracy-culture/

Barenscheer, T. (2022, April 9). Workplace Culture: Create an informal work culture in 5 steps. Retrieved from https://www.teamly.com/blog/informal-work-culture/

Adhocracy: Meaning, Overview, Advantages and Disadvantages. (2021, June 25). Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/adhocracy.asp

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